About Romania

Geography

Position: in the geographical center of the European Continent.
Coordinates: 37' 07" and 48 15'06" North Latitude. 20 15'44" and 29 41'24" East Longitude.
Boundaries: in the East the Republic of Moldavia, Ukraine, the Black Sea: in the South Bulgaria: in the South and southwest Yugoslavia: in the West, Hungary: in the North, Ukraine.
Border length: 3.190,3 Km
Area: 238 391 sq. km (12 the position in Europe):
Physical features: mountains (31%); Hills and plateaus (33%); Plains (36%); Mountains: The Romanian Carpathians: Eastern Carpathians (between the northern boundary and the Prahova Valley), maximum altitude in the Rodna Mountains-Pietrosu Peak 2 303 m; the Southern Carpathians (between the Prahova Valley and the Timis-Cerna-Bistra-Strei corridors), maximum altitude in the Fagaras Mountains-Moldoveanu Peak 2 543m; Western Carpathians in the North), maximum altitude in the Apuseni Mountains-Curcubata Mare Peak 1 849m. Hills and plateaus: Within the Carpathians arch, the Transylvanian plateau (400-700m of altitude). In the northwest, the Somes Plateau. In the East the Moldavian Plateau, and in the southwest, the Dobrujan Plateau. Plains: the most important, the Plain of the Lower Danube (the Romanian Plain), the country's breadbasket. Danube Delta: Situated in the North of Dobrujan Plateau, Youngest physical feature in Romania. On Romanian territory are stretches on 4 340-sq. km, of which 78% submerged. It has three arms, flowing into the Danube: Chilia, Sulina and SF. Gheorghe.

Hydrography
The Danube River. In the South of the country, length 1 075 km (on of the total 2 850 km from its source to its flowing into the sea.)
Other Rivers:
Mures (768 km.), Olt (736 km.), Prut (716 km.), Siret (596 km.), Ialomita (410 Km.), Somes (388 Km.), Arges (344 km.), Jiu (331 km.), Buzau ( 324 km.), Bistrita ( 290 km.)
Lakes:
Approx. 2 300 lakes and over 1 150 ponds (2 620 sq. km).
The best known are:
Razelm ( 415 sq. km); Sinoe (171 sq. km); Brates (21 sq. km.); Tasaul (20 sq. km.); Teghirghiol (12 sq. km.); Snagov (5,8 sq. km.);

Climate: Temperate continental, with oceanic influences from the West, Mediterranean from the southwest, excessive continental from the northeast. Mean annual temperature: 8 C in the North and 11 C in the South. Average annual rainfall does not exceed 700 mm.

Population: number: 22760 449 inhabitants (January 7 Th 1992.)
Density: 95,7 inhabitants per sq. Km. (Romanians, out side the boundaries, approx. 9 million. In Europe, in the Republic of Moldova, approx. 4 million, in Hungary, Serbia, Greece, Albania, approx. 2 million. In the USA and Canada, over 2 million. Others in South America, South Africa, and Australia).

Economy

The economic potential of Romania is likely to meet the requirements of its inhabitants, while creating a solid basis of international exchanges and helping with integration into continental socioeconomic structures.
This potential includes a workforce of 5 900 thousand employees in the economy, qualified on a par with European standards, an industrial structure about to be restructured, with certain signs of revigoration as regards the range of products and the volume of production in a number of branches, as well as the programs for a more efficient exploitation of the natura resources of this country as boosting foreign trade.

Industry: the Romanian industry has a high degree of concentration: 600-700 companies give almost 80 % of the industrial production. Industry accounts for approximately 50 % of the annual revenue.

Agriculture:Farmland sums up to 95 million hectares and takes up 62 % of the surface of the country. Of these, over 3 million ha are irrigate. Approximately 4.6 million ha are pastures, and 600000 ha are vineyards (Romania having famous wine brands), orchards, vine nursery and fruit tree nurseries. This great natural resource, coupled with the known capacity of the Romanian peasant to cultivate land, was a powerful argument for the confidence in the changes of agriculture of becoming one of the most productive branches of the Romanian economy after 1989.

Transportation: Located in the center of Europe, Romania contributes to the international economic exchanges between the East and West, the North and the South of the continent, as well as between Europe and the Middle East. Ten railway lines cross the Carpathian Mountains. The general orientation of the lines is influenced by the presence of the capital city in the South eastern part of the country to words which the main routes converge Bucharest is the largest railway center of the country, from which 8 trunk lines star, most of them being linked to the international traffic. Romania produces railway carriages of all categories, and electrical and Diesel-electrical engines. The total length of the motor ways that add to the railway transportation is of over 72800 kilometers 45,245 mil), with on average density of 30,7 km per 100 sq. km. Like for the railway system, the motorway junction is the capital, from where branches off roads that cross the country in all directions, some of them being great European a route. One of these is E60, which comes from Hamburg and goes through Oradea and Bucharest to Constanta .The main Waterway traffic is done on the Danube. Down river from Braila , on the port called "maritime Danube" ships with a drought of over 7m(23 ft) may navigate. On the rest, ships with drought up to 2.5 m (8.25 ft) may navigate. The construction of the Danube-Black Sea Canal reacted on extremely important waterway that connects the North Sea to the Black Sea. By the construction of the Portile de Fier I and II hydroelectric complex and navigation facilities, which include double water locks, the intensification the traffic was made possible. Maritime navigation is done especially with ships of great capacity, the Romanian fleet being equipped with ships (568) of all categories, up to these of 165000-170000 dwt. Constanta port handles 60 % of Romania's imports and exports. Romania has great shipyards 70 % of the production of these shipyards is engaged under external contracts for the year 1997. Beside the old partners (Chine, Greece, the Republic of South Africa, Belgium), new markets have placed important orders (the Netherlands, Germany,Sweden, Norway, South Korea).

Romania has left important landmarks in the history of aviation. Among others, then is the first launching with a glider, designed by Grigore Sturza (1875) and one of the first design of dirigibles in the world, presented in France by the Romanian captain Ghe. Ferikide. In 1906 Traian Vuia was the first to took off only with the own board means of the plane. In 1910, in Paris, Henri Coanda presented to the world first jet plane ever. Aurel Vlaicu built the first plain in the world to contain metallic structural elements and a two-place cabin in 1911. There are also some Romanian premieres in the field of hydroplanes and helicopters. Domestic airlines link the capital to Craiova, Timisoara, Arad, Oradea, Sibiu, Cluj Napoca, Satu Mare, Baia-Mare, Bac"u, Iasi, Suceava, Tulcea and Constanta. Several international lines link Bucharest to Budapest, Prague, Berlin, Copenhagen, Vienna, Frankfurt, Brussels, London, Moscow, New York, Rome, Sofia, Athens, Beirut, Tunis, Tel Aviv, Cairo, Peking and others.

The Government has elaborated a draft bill regarding the modernization of the land, air and sea transportation lines of Romania. There are to be built 13 highways, with a total length of 3000 km., another 1200 km. of railways, bridges over the Danube and the Prut, and four new airports, in Brasov, Galati, Alba-Iulia and Bistrita. Railway lines will allow for the circulation of high-speed trains. Several pan-European corridors will cross the Romanian Territory: the Danube and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, railway trunk lines, the highway from the West, and Bucharest-Chisinau-Kiev route.