Customs, crafts, art, costumes
The Village Museum
ArchaeologyThe history of archaeological research begins in the 19th century. A district place is held by Alexandru Odobescu, who supported and encouraged the first systematic archaeological diggings in Romania, as he organized and coordinated the national Museum of Antiquities of the Bucharest University, where he also was the first professor who taught archaeology. One of his important works is the description of the Pietroasa Treasure Trove (1900, 3 volumes) which is also called "The Hen with Brood" and which is currently at the national History Museum in Bucharest. The prehistoric archaeology of the Carpathion - Danubian space was focused upon by professor Gr.Tocilescu, the first who studied thoroughly the Roman monument of Adamclisi (Tropaeum Traiani) erected by Emperor Trajan in 109. A laborious archaeological research of the Romanian prehistory develops in the 20th century, when Vasile Parvan, an university professor, member of the Romanian Academy and director of the National Museum of Antiquities, brings this activity to an European level.
Vasile Parvan focused on the pre-Roman period, with the purpose to solve the issues related to the history of Dacia, and opened many archaeological sites. His vast historical - archaeological synthesis titled Getica (1926) illustrates the political and cultural role of the Geto-Dacians. Parvan was also the initiator of the archaeological site at Histria (on old Hellenistic citadel on the Black Sea coast) and the founder of the Romania School in Rome, an institution for the professional improvement of young archaeologists and historians. In his work and in the lectures he delivered at Cambridge, he underlined the importance of the native Daco-Getion population and its relations with the Italiotes, the Scythians, the Celts and the Romans. In the postwar period, the development - in Bucharest, Cluj and Iasi - of some history and archaeology institutes attracted many specialists. More and more museums proved to be interested in archaeology so that in the '60s, all regions of the country were already systematically researched to the end of clarifying the main problems of the national history. Thus, complete information was gathered about the primitive communal system, new major proofs being found in relation to the emergence, development and dissolution of the prehistoric communities in the Carpathian - Danubian space. Archaeological diggings helped to research partially and sometimes wholly - as in the case of the Neolithic cultures of Cucuteni, Ariusd, Gumelnita - a considerable number of objectives from the Palaeolithic, the Neolithic, the Bronze Age, the first and the second Iron Age.
A great deal of attention was given to settlements dating back to the Dacian period and to the period of the Roman conquest and the emergence of the Romanian people and language thus, the archaeologists unearthed the oldest art object in Romania, a 21.000 year - old pendant - amulet, nearly 10.000 baked clay statuettes, about 800 treasures comprising gold and silver jewelry and vessels, as well as thousands of household, military and other objects.
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